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Arms Sold:

Litening

Spike-NLOS

Drone-Dome

MIC4AD

Ironvision

JFST

Companies:

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UK

Introduction:

The UK and Israel maintain strong ties around technology, investment, research and security. The UK purchased a large amount of arms and security technology from Israel, including drones and advanced defense systems, often manufactured in joint ventures. In the 2010s cybersecurity has become a key area of UK-Israeli cooperation.

Israel – UK Relations:

 

Diplomatic relations between the UK and Israel were founded in 1949. The British embassy to Israel is located in Tel Aviv and the Israeli embassy is located in London.

In 1998 Israel and the UK established the Britain-Israel Joint Technology Investment Fund (BRITECH) with an initial $25m investment from each country.[1] In 2008 the Britain-Israel Research and Academic Exchange (BIRAX) was founded.[2] In 2015 new bilateral research and development programs were announced. Israel’s Science, Technology, and Space Ministry announced $1.5 million NIS in funding for bilateral research on water, agriculture, nanotechnology, and medicine.[3]

The UK and Israel have a double taxation treaty.[4] There are over 300 Israeli companies operating in the UK representing sectors including high tech, pharmaceutical and finance. In 2017 the UK was Israel’s number one destination for investment in Europe. Bilateral trade between the UK and Israel reached in 2018 a record high of over $10bn. Israeli exports totaled $4.3 billion, an increase of 21 percent since 2012.[5] The UK imports pharmaceutical products, plastic products, machinery and mechanical appliances, electrical machinery and equipment, and fruit and vegetables.[6]

The UK-Israel Tech Hub, based in the British Embassy in Israel, has fostered 175 tech partnerships and 54 deals worth a total of $112m since its inception in 2011. In 2018 an agreement was signed to expand scientific cooperation between Israel and Britain.

Military Relations:

In 1982 the UK imposed an arms embargo on Israel in response to the invasion of Lebanon which was only to be lifted in 1994.[7]

Arms sales, mainly from Rafael and Elbit, to the UK increased in 2006-2012 for British use in Afghanistan and Iraq.

The UK also uses the Watchkeeper UAS which is modelled on the Elbit Hermes 450 and is produced through a joint venture of Elbit and Thales UK in a contract priced at £800-million. In 2005, the UK announced that it would buy new drones based on the Hermes 450 design. As a result, Elbit formed the U-TacS partnership (of which it owns a 51% stake) with French company Thales to supply 54 Watchkeeper drones to the Ministry of Defense. Although, on the face of it, the Watchkeeper is a reconnaissance drone, it has been displayed in several arms fairs bearing missiles. There is no evidence, however, that the UK has deployed it armed.

Since 2016, Elbit has run a joint venture called Affinity Training with US company KBR. Affinity has a flight training school at RAF Cranwell in Lincolnshire in the UK, partnering with the MoD to train British pilots.[8] [9] Affinity’s contract with the MoD is worth £500m over 18 years.[10]

In 2017, the company also entered into an agreement with Babcock International, a British multinational, to establish a joint company to deliver another training program to the MoD.[11] The plan was to deliver outsourced training to the air force over a fifteen year period.[12]

Elbit Systems UK had in 2019 nine production sites and offices in the UK. Between 2018-2020 Britain’s Ministry of Defense has bought £46-million worth of military equipment from Elbit.[13] 

In 2017, the UK bought an Israeli defense system know as the Sky Sabre, that is based on technology developed for the Iron Dome, for $92.3 million to help defend the Falkland Islands off the coast of Argentina. [14] In 2018 the UK Ministry of Defense announced the purchase of six anti-drone systems developed by Rafael, in a deal valued at $20 million total. [15]

In November 2017, the head of Britain’s armed forces, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach officially visited Israel to discuss future military cooperation.[16]

In 2020 The UK’s Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) awarded Elbit with a contract worth almost £1 million to demonstrate and develop UAVs, to enhance coastal surveillance operations with the purpose of tracking migrants on British coasts.[17] [18]

The UK also exports a large volume of weapons to Israel. Between 2015-2020 the UK exported weapons for $445-million to Israel.[19] [20]

Joint Training

In 2016 and 2017 Britain and Israel conducted joint naval exercises and in 2018 British and Spanish warships conducted a joint NATO-Israel naval exercise in Israel. [21]

In 2019 Israeli, American and British F-35 combat fighters conducted a joint exercise. In another joint combat exercise in Britain, the IAF and the RAF cooperated with the German and Italian air forces.[22] [23]

In 2020 Elbit demonstrated Seagull USV (unmanned surface vessel) capabilities in anti-submarine warfare trials of the UK MOD.

Police

In 2019 Neil Basu, head of counter-terrorism for britain’s national police addressed an arms fair in Israel in 2019.

Britain’s National Police Air Services (NPAS) participated in trials of drones, produced by Elbit in 2019, as part of their plans to use military-grade drones to pursue suspects and monitor protests.[24] [25]

Cyber Security

Documents revealed by Edward Snowden in 2014 showed that the US National Security Agency with Britain’s spy Centre GCHQ as a key partner, was providing to its Israeli counterpart, the Israeli SIGINT National Unit (ISNU, also known as Unit 8200) data used to monitor and target Palestinians.[26] Cybersecurity has become a key area of UK-Israeli cooperation. A recent report by the British Israeli lobby group, Bicom, notes that “government-to-government cooperation between the UK and Israel in cybersecurity is strong and has been described by a senior UK official as a ‘first-order partnership'”.[27] 337 Israeli high-tech companies operated in the UK in 2018, an increase of 60% from 2013.[28]

In February 2020, The British government was widely criticized after espionage software provider NSO Group has been invited to a secretive security trade fair “Security and Policing” in Farnborough, UK. The Israeli company Pro4tech Ltd also participated in the fair. In 2019 the Israeli company Anyvision participated in the same fair. Anyvision develops face recognition and was criticized worldwide after its technology was reportedly used against Palestinians in the West-Bank.[29]

Usage of Israeli Arms

 

The Elbit Hermes 450 was used extensively by Britain in Afghanistan between 2007 and 2014. In 2013 British controlled Hermes 450s had completed 70,000 hours flight time in Afghanistan.[30] In September 2014 the British Army stopped using Hermes 450s and started using the Watchkeeper, based on the H-450 and co-produced by Thales and Elbit.

Spike-NLOS (or ‘Exactor) missiles were used in Iraq before being transferred to Afghanistan.[31]

Human Rights Violations

 

Extensive evidence and testimony has been provided indicating war crimes committed by British troops in Iraq after 2003 including torture and sexual abuse.[32] In 2011 allegations were made that were later shown to be true that British soldiers committed war crimes in Afghanistan including extrajudicial execution of non-threatening civilians and surrendered enemy fighters.[33] The UK failed to and deliberately hindered the prosecution of these crimes by shutting down criminal inquiries and Boris Johnson’s Conservative government trying to pass the Overseas Operations Bill that create “presumption against prosecution” for British alleged-perpetrators of war crimes.[34] [35]

In 2019, a new counterterrorism law entered into force, including measures that criminalize viewing online content, overseas travel and support to terrorism and could result in human rights violations. UK authorities continued to exercise powers to strip citizenship from UK nationals suspected of terrorism-related activity.[36]

Amnesty International has carried out in-depth field investigations in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, documenting hundreds of cases of civilians killed in Strikes, conducted by Britain’s air force.[37] Reports of the US military show that the RAF dropped almost 4,500 bombs and missiles over Iraq and Syria between 2015-2020, including civilian casualties.[38]

In 2018 European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) has ruled that UK’s state surveillance practices violated human rights law.[39] [40]

Sales Records Table:

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
7 Litening III aircraft EO systems
Rafael
2006 (2007)
for use on Tornado combat aircraft
Sipri
20 Litening EF aircraft EO systems
Rafael
2006 (2007-2008)
GBP56m
for use on Eurofighter (Typhoon) combat aircraft.
Sipri
20 Hermes-450 UAVs
Elbit
2007
$110m
for use in Iraq and Afghanistan
Sipri
200 Spike-NLOS mk2 SSM/ASMs
Rafael
2007
UK designation: Exacator, for use in Iraq, probably second hand.
Sipri
14 M-113 Spike-NLOS SSM launchers
Rafael
2007
UK designation: Exacator, for use in Iraq, probably second hand.
Sipri
200 Spike-NLOS mk4 SSM/ASMs
Rafael
2007 (2007-2008)
UK designation: Exacator, for use in Iraq, probably second hand.
Sipri
200 Spike-NLOS mk5 SSM/ASMs
Rafael
2009 (2012)
UK designation: Exacator, for use in Afghanistan, development partly financed by UK
Sipri
54 Hermes-450 UAVs
Elbit
2005 (2012-2016)
part of $1.2-1.8b deal, incl. GBP300m for producer of Hermes
most produced in UK, UK designation: Watchkeeper WK-450.
Sipri
5 Hermes-450 UAVs
Elbit
2012
for use in Afghanistan, Part of “Project Lydian”
Sipri
6 *Drone Dome” drone-interception systems
Rafael
2018
around $20m
not delivered yet
https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-rafael-to-sell-6-anti-drone-systems-to-uk-1001250393
Affinity Flying Training Services
Elbit
2016
$500m
JV with Kellogg Brown and Root
https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-02-02/debates/16020246000009/UKMilitaryFlyingTrainingSystemFixedWingContract?highlight=elbit#contribution-16020246000027
Modular integrated C4I Air and Missile Defense System (MIC4AD)
Rafael
2017
$79.1 million
for Sky Sabre Defense System, based on Iron Dome technology
https://www.israeldefense.co.il/en/node/28659
Morpheus Battle Management Application
Elbit
2018
$13m
for British Army
https:// www.army-technology.com/news/elbit-deliver-morpheus-bma-british-army/
JTAC and FST Training Simulator
Elbit
2019
https:// www.edrmagazine.eu/elbit-systems-uk-completed-the-delivery-of-a-jtac-and-fst-training-simulator-to-the-british-army
Ironvision x-ray vision for tanks
Elbit
2020
https:// en.globes.co.il/en/article-elbits-x-ray-vision-to-be-built-into-new-uk-battle-tank-1001316132
Joint Fires Synthetic Training (JFST) Systems
Elbit
2020
$38m

1. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/britain-israel-joint-technology-investment-fund-britech

2. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/britain-israel-research-and-academic-exchange-partnership-birax

3. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/united-kingdom-virtual-jewish-history-tour#11

4. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/israel-tax-treaties

5. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/united-kingdom-virtual-jewish-history-tour#11

6. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/united-kingdom-virtual-jewish-history-tour#11

7. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/britain-lifts-arms-embargo-against-israel-1438791.html

8. ^ https://www.affinityfts.co.uk/about-us/

9. ^ https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-elbit-systems-contract-idUKKCN0VB10U

10. ^ https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-elbit-systems-contract-idUKKCN0VB10U

11. ^ http://elbitsystems.com/pr-new/elbit-systems-babcock-international-partner-pursue-uk-mods-asdot-programme-2/

12. ^ http://elbitsystems.com/pr-new/elbit-systems-babcock-international-partner-pursue-uk-mods-asdot-programme-2/

13. ^ https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-10-08-ties-that-bind-britain-buys-46m-of-israeli-military-equipment-and-stations-troops-in-israel/

14. ^ https://www.defenseworld.net/news/21338/UK_to_Buy____Sky_Sabre____Missile_Shield_for__92_Million_to_Protect_Falkland_Islands#.X60Un-kxnIU

15. ^ https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-rafael-to-sell-6-anti-drone-systems-to-uk-1001250393

16. ^ https://elnetwork.eu/country/uk/warming-uk-israel-ties-on-the-eve-of-brexit/

17. ^ https://www.wired.co.uk/article/english-channel-migrants-drones

18. ^ https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1291722/uk-coastguard-search-rescue-conflict-gaza-drones-coronavirus-beaches-coast

19. ^ https://www.cufi.org.uk/news/britains-relationship-with-israel-is-thriving-but-must-be-defended-in-increasingly-hostile-climate/

20. ^ https://www.middleeasteye.net/opinion/raw-truth-about-uks-special-relationship-israel

21. ^ https://www.middleeasteye.net/opinion/raw-truth-about-uks-special-relationship-israel

22. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/in-first-u-k-confirms-f-35-exercise-with-israel-and-sorties-in-iraq-syria-1.7409854

23. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/united-kingdom-virtual-jewish-history-tour#11

24. ^ https://www.politicshome.com/news/article/military-grade-drones-home-office

25. ^ https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-10-08-ties-that-bind-britain-buys-46m-of-israeli-military-equipment-and-stations-troops-in-israel/

26. ^ https://theintercept.com/2014/08/04/cash-weapons-surveillance/

27. ^ https://www.bicom.org.uk/analysis/uk-israel-relations-brexit-cyber-security/

28. ^ https://elnetwork.eu/country/uk/warming-uk-israel-ties-on-the-eve-of-brexit/

29. ^ https://omegaresearchfoundation.org/resources/arms-fairs/security-and-policing-home-office-event

30. ^ https://www.suasnews.com/2013/09/hermes-450-reaches-70000-hours-in-afghanistan/

31. ^ https://www.thinkdefence.co.uk/uk-complex-weapons/exactor/z

32. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/jan/19/britain-guilty-systemic-torture-iraq

33. ^ https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/08/05/uk-war-crime-revelations-afghanistan-expose-justice-failings

34. ^ https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/20/uk-bill-license-military-crimes

35. ^ https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/rogue-sas-afghanistan-execution-squad-exposed-by-email-trail-7pg3dkdww

36. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/united-kingdom

37. ^ https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1291722/uk-coastguard-search-rescue-conflict-gaza-drones-coronavirus-beaches-coast

38. ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/03/16/us-military-says-raf-airstrikes-may-have-killed-civilians-war/

39. ^ https://techcrunch.com/2018/09/13/uks-mass-surveillance-regime-violated-human-rights-law-finds-echr/

40. ^ https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2018/09/uk-surveillance-regime-violated-human-rights

UK

The UK and Israel maintain strong ties around technology, investment, research and security. The UK purchased a large amount of arms and security technology from Israel, including drones and advanced defense systems, often manufactured in joint ventures. In the 2010s cybersecurity has become a key area of UK-Israeli cooperation.

Diplomatic relations between the UK and Israel were founded in 1949. The British embassy to Israel is located in Tel Aviv and the Israeli embassy is located in London.

In 1998 Israel and the UK established the Britain-Israel Joint Technology Investment Fund (BRITECH) with an initial $25m investment from each country.[1] In 2008 the Britain-Israel Research and Academic Exchange (BIRAX) was founded.[2] In 2015 new bilateral research and development programs were announced. Israel’s Science, Technology, and Space Ministry announced $1.5 million NIS in funding for bilateral research on water, agriculture, nanotechnology, and medicine.[3]

The UK and Israel have a double taxation treaty.[4] There are over 300 Israeli companies operating in the UK representing sectors including high tech, pharmaceutical and finance. In 2017 the UK was Israel’s number one destination for investment in Europe. Bilateral trade between the UK and Israel reached in 2018 a record high of over $10bn. Israeli exports totaled $4.3 billion, an increase of 21 percent since 2012.[5] The UK imports pharmaceutical products, plastic products, machinery and mechanical appliances, electrical machinery and equipment, and fruit and vegetables.[6]

The UK-Israel Tech Hub, based in the British Embassy in Israel, has fostered 175 tech partnerships and 54 deals worth a total of $112m since its inception in 2011. In 2018 an agreement was signed to expand scientific cooperation between Israel and Britain.

In 1982 the UK imposed an arms embargo on Israel in response to the invasion of Lebanon which was only to be lifted in 1994.[7]

Arms sales, mainly from Rafael and Elbit, to the UK increased in 2006-2012 for British use in Afghanistan and Iraq.

The UK also uses the Watchkeeper UAS which is modelled on the Elbit Hermes 450 and is produced through a joint venture of Elbit and Thales UK in a contract priced at £800-million. In 2005, the UK announced that it would buy new drones based on the Hermes 450 design. As a result, Elbit formed the U-TacS partnership (of which it owns a 51% stake) with French company Thales to supply 54 Watchkeeper drones to the Ministry of Defense. Although, on the face of it, the Watchkeeper is a reconnaissance drone, it has been displayed in several arms fairs bearing missiles. There is no evidence, however, that the UK has deployed it armed.

Since 2016, Elbit has run a joint venture called Affinity Training with US company KBR. Affinity has a flight training school at RAF Cranwell in Lincolnshire in the UK, partnering with the MoD to train British pilots.[8] [9] Affinity’s contract with the MoD is worth £500m over 18 years.[10]

In 2017, the company also entered into an agreement with Babcock International, a British multinational, to establish a joint company to deliver another training programm to the MoD.[11] The plan was to deliver outsourced training to the air force over a fifteen year period.[12]

Elbit Systems UK had in 2019 nine production sites and offices in the UK. Between 2018-2020 Britain’s Ministry of Defense has bought £46-million worth of military equipment from Elbit.[13] 

In 2017, the UK bought an Israeli defense system know as the Sky Sabre, that is based on technology developed for the Iron Dome, for $92.3 million to help defend the Falkland Islands off the coast of Argentina. [14] In 2018 the UK Ministry of Defense announced the purchase of six anti-drone systems developed by Rafael, in a deal valued at $20 million total. [15]

In November 2017, the head of Britain’s armed forces, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach officially visited Israel to discuss future military cooperation.[16]

In 2020 The UK’s Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) awarded Elbit with a contract worth almost £1 million to demonstrate and develop UAVs, to enhance coastal surveillance operations with the purpose of tracking migrants on British coasts.[17] [18]

The UK also exports a large volume of weapons to Israel. Between 2015-2020 the UK exported weapons for $445-million to Israel.[19] [20]

Joint Training

In 2016 and 2017 Britain and Israel conducted joint naval exercises and in 2018 British and Spanish warships conducted a joint NATO-Israel naval exercise in Israel. [21]

In 2019 Israeli, American and British F-35 combat fighters conducted a joint exercise. In another joint combat exercise in Britain, the IAF and the RAF cooperated with the German and Italian air forces.[22] [23]

Police

In 2019 Neil Basu, head of counter-terrorism for britain’s national police addressed an arms fair in Israel in 2019.

Britain’s National Police Air Services (NPAS) participated in trials of drones, produced by Elbit in 2019, as part of their plans to use military-grade drones to pursue suspects and monitor protests.[24] [25]

Cyber Security

Documents revealed by Edward Snowden in 2014 showed that the US National Security Agency with Britain’s spy Centre GCHQ as a key partner, was providing to its Israeli counterpart, the Israeli SIGINT National Unit (ISNU, also known as Unit 8200) data used to monitor and target Palestinians.[26] Cybersecurity has become a key area of UK-Israeli cooperation. A recent report by the British Israeli lobby group, Bicom, notes that “government-to-government cooperation between the UK and Israel in cybersecurity is strong and has been described by a senior UK official as a ‘first-order partnership'”.[27] 337 Israeli high-tech companies operated in the UK in 2018, an increase of 60% from 2013.[28]

In February 2020, The British government was widely criticized after espionage software provider NSO Group has been invited to a secretive security trade fair “Security and Policing” in Farnborough, UK. The Israeli company Pro4tech Ltd also participated in the fair. In 2019 the Israeli company Anyvision participated in the same fair. Anyvision develops face recognition and was criticized worldwide after its technology was reportedly used against Palestinians in the West-Bank.[29]

The Elbit Hermes 450 was used extensively by Britain in Afghanistan between 2007 and 2014. In 2013 British controlled Hermes 450s had completed 70,000 hours flight time in Afghanistan.[30] In September 2014 the British Army stopped using Hermes 450s and started using the Watchkeeper, based on the H-450 and co-produced by Thales and Elbit.

Spike-NLOS (or ‘Exactor) missiles were used in Iraq before being transferred to Afghanistan.[31]

Extensive evidence and testimony has been provided indicating war crimes committed by British troops in Iraq after 2003 including torture and sexual abuse.[32] In 2011 allegations were made that were later shown to be true that British soldiers committed war crimes in Afghanistan including extrajudicial execution of non-threatening civilians and surrendered enemy fighters.[33] The UK failed to and deliberately hindered the prosecution of these crimes by shutting down criminal inquiries and Boris Johnson’s Conservative government trying to pass the Overseas Operations Bill that create “presumption against prosecution” for British alleged-perpetrators of war crimes.[34] [35]

In 2019, a new counterterrorism law entered into force, including measures that criminalize viewing online content, overseas travel and support to terrorism and could result in human rights violations. UK authorities continued to exercise powers to strip citizenship from UK nationals suspected of terrorism-related activity.[36]

Amnesty International has carried out in-depth field investigations in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, documenting hundreds of cases of civilians killed in Strikes, conducted by Britain’s air force.[37] Reports of the US military show that the RAF dropped almost 4,500 bombs and missiles over Iraq and Syria between 2015-2020, including civilian casualties.[38]

In 2018 European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) has ruled that UK’s state surveillance practices violated human rights law.[39] [40]

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
7 Litening III aircraft EO systems
Rafael
2006 (2007)
for use on Tornado combat aircraft
Sipri
20 Litening EF aircraft EO systems
Rafael
2006 (2007-2008)
GBP56m
for use on Eurofighter (Typhoon) combat aircraft.
Sipri
20 Hermes-450 UAVs
Elbit
2007
$110m
for use in Iraq and Afghanistan
Sipri
200 Spike-NLOS mk2 SSM/ASMs
Rafael
2007
UK designation: Exacator, for use in Iraq, probably second hand.
Sipri
14 M-113 Spike-NLOS SSM launchers
Rafael
2007
UK designation: Exacator, for use in Iraq, probably second hand.
Sipri
200 Spike-NLOS mk4 SSM/ASMs
Rafael
2007 (2007-2008)
UK designation: Exacator, for use in Iraq, probably second hand.
Sipri
200 Spike-NLOS mk5 SSM/ASMs
Rafael
2009 (2012)
UK designation: Exacator, for use in Afghanistan, development partly financed by UK
Sipri
54 Hermes-450 UAVs
Elbit
2005 (2012-2016)
part of $1.2-1.8b deal, incl. GBP300m for producer of Hermes
most produced in UK, UK designation: Watchkeeper WK-450.
Sipri
5 Hermes-450 UAVs
Elbit
2012
for use in Afghanistan, Part of “Project Lydian”
Sipri
6 *Drone Dome” drone-interception systems
Rafael
2018
around $20m
not delivered yet
https://en.globes.co.il/en/article-rafael-to-sell-6-anti-drone-systems-to-uk-1001250393
Affinity Flying Training Services
Elbit
2016
$500m
JV with Kellogg Brown and Root
https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-02-02/debates/16020246000009/UKMilitaryFlyingTrainingSystemFixedWingContract?highlight=elbit#contribution-16020246000027
Modular integrated C4I Air and Missile Defense System (MIC4AD)
Rafael
2017
$79.1 million
for Sky Sabre Defense System, based on Iron Dome technology
https://www.israeldefense.co.il/en/node/28659
Morpheus Battle Management Application
Elbit
2018
$13m
for British Army
https:// www.army-technology.com/news/elbit-deliver-morpheus-bma-british-army/
JTAC and FST Training Simulator
Elbit
2019
https:// www.edrmagazine.eu/elbit-systems-uk-completed-the-delivery-of-a-jtac-and-fst-training-simulator-to-the-british-army
Ironvision x-ray vision for tanks
Elbit
2020
https:// en.globes.co.il/en/article-elbits-x-ray-vision-to-be-built-into-new-uk-battle-tank-1001316132
Joint Fires Synthetic Training (JFST) Systems
Elbit
2020
$38m