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Arms Sold:

Searcher

M-58 mortar

M-46S towed gun

Air Refuel System

Popeye

Super Dvora MK-2 Patrol Craft

Litening

Phyton-4

Derby BVRAAM

Spice-2000

Harop

MARS2 Sigint

NG-LGB

Bird Eye 400

Phalcon AWAC

RWS

MRSAM

LRSAM

Sky Capture

ATHOS

TaxiBot

Airborne Suites

Companies:

Elta

IWI

NICE Systems

MAFAT

Soltam Systems

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India

Introduction:

India has for years been one of the largest purchasers of Israeli arms. Israel supplied 15% of India’s arms imports from 2014-2018, and 45% of Israel’s exports. The majority of Israel’s exports to India are made up of aerial defense, radar systems and ammunition. Israel and India signed several joint ventures agreements, developing a significant amount of Israeli production facilities in India. Trade deals and joint ventures have increased since the election of India’s Prime Minister Modi in 2014.

Israel - India Relations:

Although India recognized the state of Israel in 1950, it kept their relationship informal for fear of alienating Indian Muslim voters domestically, as well as Arab nations, and on account of India’s membership of the pro-Palestine Non-Aligned Movement. India and Israel also found themselves on opposing sides of the Cold War.

No longer obligated to Soviet-friendly foreign policy, India established full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992 and opened an embassy in Tel Aviv. Since then, Indian-Israeli partnership has blossomed as a result of shared security and intelligence interests. As of 2014 India was Israel’s third largest Asian trade partner, with bilateral trade (excluding military sales) standing at $4.52b.

In 2003, Ariel Sharon became the first Israeli PM to visit India. In 2017, Narendra Modi became the first Indian leader to visit Israel and notably broke from convention in not visiting Palestine. Benjamin Netanyahu visited India in 2018 with a 130-member delegation, the biggest on record.

Military Relations:

In the 2000s, Indian and Israeli interests converged around combatting terrorism. Shortly after Sharon’s 2003 visit, the countries’ defense services began joint military exercises and trainings. In 2008 Indian military officials visited Israel[1] and following attacks in Mumbai later that year offered paramedics and counter-terrorist units to help. In 2009 the IDF Chief of Staff visited India.

From 2015-19, 45% of Israeli arms sales were to India.[2] Since 2014 Israeli-Indian arms sales have accelerated as Israel participated in the ‘Make-in-India’ government program that lead to Indian-Israeli joint ventures setting up arms manufacturing facilities in India. Israel has stated its support for Indian policy in Kashmir[3], and has conducted annual police trainings for the Indian Police Service (IPS) since 2014. In 2020 India is the largest buyer of Israeli arms.

Usage of Israeli Arms:

Israeli police regularly train the same Indian police services that have been involved in violently addressing insurgency in Kashmir and Jammu with excessive force.[4][5] Punjab police travelled to Israel in 2014 for ‘anti-terror’ trainings, with additional plans for Israeli trainings in India, and the establishment of a training academy in India.[6] Since 2015 Indian Police Service (IPS) officer trainees have been visiting the Israel National Police Academy annually for a one-week long foreign exposure training at the end of their training at the National Police Academy in Hyderabad.[7] During the 2016 insurgency in Kashmir, there were 145 civilian deaths at police hands, and in 2019 disproportionate violence and mass detention was used in the region where Israeli drones have also been used for surveillance.

Tavor X95 assault rifles and Galil sniper rifles purchased in 2002, 2011, and 2017 have been used in counter-insurgency operations in Kashmir by the Indian Marine Commando Force (MARCOS).[8][9][10]  In 2017 Punj Lloyd Systems and IWI announced a joint venture to manufacture Tavors and Galils, and in the same year an IDF delegation visited Indian military headquarters in Kashmir and briefed commanders on their counterinsurgency efforts in Palestinian territories.[11] A 2017 partnership between Israeli Magal Security and Indian Dynamatic Technologies also suggests that technology implemented on the Gaza border and Separation Barrier, and used for settlement security, could be being used on the Indian-Pakistani border.

In 2018 CitizenLab showed that at least two dozen academics, journalists, and minority ethnic activists in India were targeted by Pegasus spyware developed by the Israeli NSO Group[12] in a suspected abuse of international human rights law.[13][14] The operative in India, GANGES, (also used in Brazil, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, and Pakistan) used a politically themed domain signpetition[.]co to lure activists into inadvertently downloading the spyware. While Indian Ministry of Home Affairs denies having purchased Pegasus[15], NSO Group states that “We license our product only to vetted and legitimate government agencies.”[16] [17] Pegasus was used in India to target activists connected to the Bhima Koregaon incident in January 2018 where protests became violent and one teenager died as a result of injuries related to suspected police brutality.[18][19] The spyware was used in 45 countries notably in Mexico, UAE, Bahrain, Togo, and Saudi Arabia including against Jamal Khashoggi. India also used Pegasus to spy on Pakistani government officials.[20]

In 2019, Israeli-sold Spice 2000 missiles were used against Pakistan in the Bakalot airstrike[21], as were Phalcon AWACS radar systems[22], and the Crystal Maze system.[23] SPYDER SAM[24] and Derby missiles[25] were used to shoot down Pakistani drone during the flareup.

Human Rights Violations:

Indian police forces are culpable of numerous violations of human rights including restriction of freedom of speech, mass arbitrary detention, and use of excessive force, often resulting in fatalities. These are particularly notable in Jammu and Kashmir. In 2014, a young boy was fatally shot by Indian police during a protest against the Israeli siege on Gaza.[26] In 2016, there were 145 civilian deaths in Kashmir and Jammu at the hands of the police.[27]

After India revoked the region’s special status in August 2019, ‘administrative detention’[28] [29] policy was implemented and individuals were detained often without charges in suspected violation of due process.[30] By mid-September, 4,000 journalists, activists, and elected politicians had been arrested since the start of the insurgency in August[31], as well as children.[32] State surveillance and a communication blackout have been put in place, and the Chief of Defense Staff has spoken of establishing deradicalization camps in the region.[33] Freedom of expression restrictions and police violence can be seen throughout India against activists and journalists, for example the killings of thirteen environmental protestors in Thoothukudi in 2018.[34]

Police and judicial systems neglect violence against religious and ethnic minorities, including Muslims, Dalits, and indigenous peoples,[35] as well as sexual and domestic violence against women. Repressive and discriminatory laws have been passed to allow government the power to designate individuals as terrorists. Legislation has been passed to undermine the rights of transgender people, and the Citizenship Act amendment in 2019 endangers Muslims citizens, as well as asylum seekers and refugees.[36] Recent citizen registers have excluded nearly two million people, stripping them of rights and subjecting them to potential detention. These measures particularly affect vulnerable groups like indigenous peoples and women. Millions of forest dwelling indigenous communities face eviction by a 2019 Supreme Court ruling.

Sales Records Table:

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1. ^ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/New_heights_India_Israel_step_up_defence_ties/rssarticleshow/3690525.cms

2. ^ https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/israels-arms-exports-over-past-four-years-at-highest-ever-620561

3. ^ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/israel-says-will-never-support-pakistan-on-kashmir/articleshow/60135571.cms

4. ^ Israel-India Military Relations: Ideological Paradigms of Security, 10

5. ^ https://www.gov.il/en/Departments/news/indian_police_officer_course_010818

6. ^ https://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/Israel-to-train-punjab-cops-in-antiterror-operations/

7. ^ Israel-India Military Relations: Ideological Paradigms of Security, 10

8. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IWI_Tavor_X95

9. ^ Israel-India Military Relations: Ideological Paradigms of Security, 8

10. ^ https://electronicintifada.net/content/india-employing-israeli-oppression-tactics-kashmir/8985

11. ^ https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2017/oct/31/israeli-army-delegation-visits-armys-northern-command-headquarters-in-jammu-and-kashmir-1688359.html

12. ^ https://indianexpress.com/article/india/whatsapp-confirms-israeli-spyware-used-snoop-on-indian-journalists-activists-pegasus-facebook-6095296/

13. ^ https://citizenlab.ca/2017/07/open-letter-to-blackstone-possible-nso-acquisition/

14. ^ https://scroll.in/latest/942218/nagpur-lawyer-notified-by-whatsapp-of-surveillance-says-bhima-koregaon-accused-were-also-targetted

15. ^ Israel-India Military Relations: Ideological Paradigms of Security, 12

16. ^ https://indianexpress.com/article/india/whatsapp-confirms-israeli-spyware-used-snoop-on-indian-journalists-activists-pegasus-facebook-6095296/

17. ^ https://citizenlab.ca/2018/09/hide-and-seek-tracking-nso-groups-pegasus-spyware-to-operations-in-45-countries/

18. ^ Israel-India Military Relations: Ideological Paradigms of Security, 11

19. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2018_Bhima_Koregaon_violence

20. ^ https://13news.co.il/item/news/abroad/asia/india-pakistan-nso-964235/

21. ^ https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20190228-israeli-bombs-and-rhetoric-are-dropped-on-both-palestine-and-kashmir/

22. ^ http://forceindia.net/cover-story/the-lessons/

23. ^ https://www.orfonline.org/research/israels-arms-sales-to-india-bedrock-of-a-strategic-partnership-55101/#_edn43

24. ^ https://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/israeli-spyder-used-to-shoot-down-pakistani-drone-in-gujarat-119022600672_1.html

25. ^ https://www.orfonline.org/research/israels-arms-sales-to-india-bedrock-of-a-strategic-partnership-55101/#_edn43

26. ^ https://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia/2014/07/kashmir-teen-killed-during-anti-israel-rally-201472084614671298.html

27. ^ http://jkccs.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/2016-Human-Rights-Review-JKCCS.pdf

28. ^ https://www.middleeasteye.net/opinion/when-it-comes-palestine-and-kashmir-india-and-israel-are-oppressors-arms

29. ^ https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/01/17/india-failing-kashmiri-human-rights

30. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-detains-palestinians-without-charge-administrative-detention-policy-hamas-links-hamza-hamad-a7543206.html

31. ^ https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/09/16/india-free-kashmiris-arbitrarily-detained

32. ^ https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/plea-alleges-detention-of-children-in-kashmir-sc-seeks-report/story-uYcwFsTP7ExhcncAARRd6N.html

33. ^ https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/fear-kashmir-top-general-talks-deradicalisation-camps-200124081502319.html

34. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoothukudi_massacre

35. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/india#0b5853

36. ^ https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/asia-and-the-pacific/india/report-india/

India

India has for years been one of the largest purchasers of Israeli arms. Israel supplied 15% of India’s arms imports from 2014-2018, and 45% of Israel’s exports. The majority of Israel’s exports to India are made up of aerial defense, radar systems and ammunition. Israel and India signed several joint ventures agreements, developing a significant amount of Israeli production facilities in India. Trade deals and joint ventures have increased since the election of India’s Prime Minister Modi in 2014.

Although India recognized the state of Israel in 1950, it kept their relationship informal for fear of alienating Indian Muslim voters domestically, as well as Arab nations, and on account of India’s membership of the pro-Palestine Non-Aligned Movement. India and Israel also found themselves on opposing sides of the Cold War.

No longer obligated to Soviet-friendly foreign policy, India established full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992 and opened an embassy in Tel Aviv. Since then, Indian-Israeli partnership has blossomed as a result of shared security and intelligence interests. As of 2014 India was Israel’s third largest Asian trade partner, with bilateral trade (excluding military sales) standing at $4.52b.

In 2003, Ariel Sharon became the first Israeli PM to visit India. In 2017, Narendra Modi became the first Indian leader to visit Israel and notably broke from convention in not visiting Palestine. Benjamin Netanyahu visited India in 2018 with a 130-member delegation, the biggest on record.

In the 2000s, Indian and Israeli interests converged around combatting terrorism. Shortly after Sharon’s 2003 visit, the countries’ defense services began joint military exercises and trainings. In 2008 Indian military officials visited Israel[1] and following attacks in Mumbai later that year offered paramedics and counter-terrorist units to help. In 2009 the IDF Chief of Staff visited India.

From 2015-19, 45% of Israeli arms sales were to India.[2] Since 2014 Israeli-Indian arms sales have accelerated as Israel participated in the ‘Make-in-India’ government program that lead to Indian-Israeli joint ventures setting up arms manufacturing facilities in India. Israel has stated its support for Indian policy in Kashmir[3], and has conducted annual police trainings for the Indian Police Service (IPS) since 2014. In 2020 India is the largest buyer of Israeli arms.

 

Israeli police regularly train the same Indian police services that have been involved in violently addressing insurgency in Kashmir and Jammu with excessive force.[4][5] Punjab police travelled to Israel in 2014 for ‘anti-terror’ trainings, with additional plans for Israeli trainings in India, and the establishment of a training academy in India.[6] Since 2015 Indian Police Service (IPS) officer trainees have been visiting the Israel National Police Academy annually for a one-week long foreign exposure training at the end of their training at the National Police Academy in Hyderabad.[7] During the 2016 insurgency in Kashmir, there were 145 civilian deaths at police hands, and in 2019 disproportionate violence and mass detention was used in the region where Israeli drones have also been used for surveillance.

Tavor X95 assault rifles and Galil sniper rifles purchased in 2002, 2011, and 2017 have been used in counter-insurgency operations in Kashmir by the Indian Marine Commando Force (MARCOS).[8][9][10]  In 2017 Punj Lloyd Systems and IWI announced a joint venture to manufacture Tavors and Galils, and in the same year an IDF delegation visited Indian military headquarters in Kashmir and briefed commanders on their counterinsurgency efforts in Palestinian territories.[11] A 2017 partnership between Israeli Magal Security and Indian Dynamatic Technologies also suggests that technology implemented on the Gaza border and Separation Barrier, and used for settlement security, could be being used on the Indian-Pakistani border.

In 2018 CitizenLab showed that at least two dozen academics, journalists, and minority ethnic activists in India were targeted by Pegasus spyware developed by the Israeli NSO Group[12] in a suspected abuse of international human rights law.[13][14] The operative in India, GANGES, (also used in Brazil, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, and Pakistan) used a politically themed domain signpetition[.]co to lure activists into inadvertently downloading the spyware. While Indian Ministry of Home Affairs denies having purchased Pegasus[15], NSO Group states that “We license our product only to vetted and legitimate government agencies.”[16] [17] Pegasus was used in India to target activists connected to the Bhima Koregaon incident in January 2018 where protests became violent and one teenager died as a result of injuries related to suspected police brutality.[18][19] The spyware was used in 45 countries notably in Mexico, UAE, Bahrain, Togo, and Saudi Arabia including against Jamal Khashoggi. India also used Pegasus to spy on Pakistani government officials.[20]

In 2019, Israeli-sold Spice 2000 missiles were used against Pakistan in the Bakalot airstrike[21], as were Phalcon AWACS radar systems[22], and the Crystal Maze system.[23] SPYDER SAM[24] and Derby missiles[25] were used to shoot down Pakistani drone during the flareup.

Indian police forces are culpable of numerous violations of human rights including restriction of freedom of speech, mass arbitrary detention, and use of excessive force, often resulting in fatalities. These are particularly notable in Jammu and Kashmir. In 2014, a young boy was fatally shot by Indian police during a protest against the Israeli siege on Gaza.[26] In 2016, there were 145 civilian deaths in Kashmir and Jammu at the hands of the police.[27]

After India revoked the region’s special status in August 2019, ‘administrative detention’[28] [29] policy was implemented and individuals were detained often without charges in suspected violation of due process.[30] By mid-September, 4,000 journalists, activists, and elected politicians had been arrested since the start of the insurgency in August[31], as well as children.[32] State surveillance and a communication blackout have been put in place, and the Chief of Defense Staff has spoken of establishing deradicalization camps in the region.[33] Freedom of expression restrictions and police violence can be seen throughout India against activists and journalists, for example the killings of thirteen environmental protestors in Thoothukudi in 2018.[34]

Police and judicial systems neglect violence against religious and ethnic minorities, including Muslims, Dalits, and indigenous peoples,[35] as well as sexual and domestic violence against women. Repressive and discriminatory laws have been passed to allow government the power to designate individuals as terrorists. Legislation has been passed to undermine the rights of transgender people, and the Citizenship Act amendment in 2019 endangers Muslims citizens, as well as asylum seekers and refugees.[36] Recent citizen registers have excluded nearly two million people, stripping them of rights and subjecting them to potential detention. These measures particularly affect vulnerable groups like indigenous peoples and women. Millions of forest dwelling indigenous communities face eviction by a 2019 Supreme Court ruling.

Searcher

M-58 mortar

M-46S towed gun

Air Refuel System

Popeye

Super Dvora MK-2 Patrol Craft

Litening

Phyton-4

Derby BVRAAM

Spice-2000

Harop

MARS2 Sigint

NG-LGB

Bird Eye 400

Phalcon AWAC

RWS

MRSAM

LRSAM

Sky Capture

ATHOS

TaxiBot

Airborne Suites

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

File could not be opened. Check the file’s permissions to make sure it’s readable by your server.