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Arms Sold:

Cornershot

Cascaval armored car

Compact 76mm Naval gun

M-68 Towed Gun

Companies:

TAR Ideal Concept

Ability

Gaia Automative Industries

Cybint

Israeli Military Industries (IMI)

Soltam Systems

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Myanmar

Introduction:

Myanmar’s crimes against the Rohingya Muslim Minority (thousands were killed, 1.1 million have fled) has earned the country widespread condemnation and different arms embargos since the 1990s. Despite that, Israel has been accused of continuing to sell military equipment to the Myanmar Military even as it faced accusations of war crimes against the Rohingya. Israeli arms exports between 2000-2017 included towed guns, naval guns, armed vehicles, and patrol vessels. In addition, training of soldiers by Israel, intelligence cooperation and cybersecurity systems were reportedly provided to Myanmar.

Israel – Myanmar Relations:

Israel and Myanmar established diplomatic ties in 1953. Israel has an embassy in Yangon and Myanmar has an embassy in Tel Aviv.

Israel and Myanmar have undertaken many international cooperation ventures in the fields of economy, agriculture, health and education. Thousands of students from Myanmar have received training in Israel and scholarships for studies in Israel.  Bilateral agreements were signed in fields of trade and economy, culture and sports, tourism and education.[1] [2] Myanmar imports from Israel were worth $2.12m during 2019 with the main goods being Fertilizers, Pharmaceutical products, machinery and electronic equipment. [3]

Israel always maintained an embassy in Myanmar and was one of the few countries to offer direct aid to the pariah state after Cyclone Nargis left 150,000 dead in 2008.[4] Israel only reacted to allegations of Israeli arms being involved in crimes against the Rohingya in 2017, following domestic and international uproar and a legal challenge that reached its High Court.[5] Israel provided no clarification on military exports to and cooperation with Myanmar and Israeli officials refuse to utilize the term “Rohingya” (Myanmar rejects the term and does not recognize them as citizens).[6]

Military Relations:

Military relations started with the beginning of diplomatic ties. Israel exported 29 Spitfire fighter aircrafts that were modernized by Israel in 1954.[7]  There have been reports that trace intelligence cooperation back to the 1950s, and training and arms sales from the 1990s onwards, in spite of occasional denials by Israeli authorities.[8] Despite an arms embargo by the US and Europe that was declared in the 1990s Israel exported a large number of arms to Myanmar and its Military Junta in the 1990s and 2000s. Israeli arms exports between 2000-2017 included towed guns, naval guns, armed vehicles and patrol vessels.[9]

Both sides formally inked a memorandum of understanding on military cooperation in the defense sector in 2015, which covered areas such as exchanges and visits, military training, information sharing, military education, and technology acquisition.[10]

In 2015, the Head of Myanmar’s Military Junta, Min Aung Hlaing, visited Israel and met Israeli officials, including the chief of staff, the minister of defense and the president. He visited military and air force bases. In 2016 the director of the International Defense Cooperation Directorate (SIBAT) visited Myanmar and met Hlaing. Investigations by several human rights watchdogs found more than 100 tanks, as well as boats and light weapons, have been sold to Myanmar by Israeli arms companies between 2000-2017.[11]

In a huge deal Myanmar purchased 6 Super Dvora Mk-3 vessels from Israeli Aerospace Industries in 2015. The total value of the arms deal is estimated to be tens of millions of dollars. The remote weapons station is made by Elbit Systems. The ships were delivered in 2017 [12].

Israel officially stopped selling advanced weaponry to Myanmar’s military in 2017 following domestic and international uproar and a legal challenge that reached its High Court. It is unclear if indeed Israel firms supplied Myanmar’s military between 2017-2020. In December 2017, Myanmar’s ambassador to Israel, U Maung Maung Lynn, said that Israel was still selling weapons to his country. Israel promptly reprimanded and “rebuked” the ambassador, who soon apologized and retracted his statement.[13]

Israel has been accused of continuing to sell military equipment to the Myanmar Military even as it faced accusations of war crimes against minority Rohingya Muslims.[14] In 2019 The UN charged in an official report that Israel was among seven countries that sold arms to Myanmar’s military at a time when it should have known that the weapons “would be used in the commission of serious crimes under international law.”[15] [16] In the UN report, the mission said that as of 2016, 14 foreign companies, including two from Israel, had provided arms and related equipment to the Tatmadaw (Myanmar’s Army) when its actions against the Rohingya were already well publicized.[17]

One company, TAR Ideal Concept, posted pictures in August 2016 of its staff teaching combat tactics to Myanmar’s special forces in northern Rakhine state, where much of the violence is taking place.[18] On the website of TAR Ideal Concepts, that specializes in providing military training and equipment, pictures showed training with Israeli-made Corner Shot rifles, along with the statement that Myanmar had begun operational use of the weapons.[19]

In 2019 official representatives of the Myanmar military were among those touring the Israel Defense and Homeland Security Expo (ISDEF) in Tel Aviv.[20]

In 2019 media reported that the military-backed government of Myanmar used Israeli technology to gather evidence that led to the imprisonment of two Reuter journalists. A former Myanmar military official described the country as a “major customer” of Cellebrite. Myanmar reportedly used Cellebrite’s Universal Forensic Extraction Device (UFED) to retrieve documents from journalists’ phones. Between 2017-2018, the Myanmar government used UFED to prosecute two Reuters journalists, Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo. The journalists were accused of violating state secrecy laws for their Pulitzer Prize-winning reporting on atrocities against the country’s Rohingya Muslim minority. While Cellebrite claims that it stopped selling its products in Myanmar in late 2018, Freedom House and human rights lawyer Khin Maung Zaw claim that the government is still deploying the technology. [21] 

Myanmar is also a customer of another Israeli company, named Ability, a former NSO Group partner. Ability sells something called the Unlimited Interception System (ULIN), which allows Ability to intercept networks to spy on target’s smartphones.[22] Myanmar purchased different systems from Ability, that cost between $1 and $5 million.[23]

In 2020 the Israeli cyber security company Cybint announced the development of Cybint Certified Centers in Myanmar as part of their cyber security training programs throughout the Asia-Pacific region.[24]

In June 2020 international media reported that the Arakan Army seized an Israeli-made military-grade Skylark I-LEX drone, belonging to Myanmar’s military. [25] [26]

In March 2021 the New York Times reported that drones made by Elbit, cyber spyware made by Cellebrite and armored vehicles made by Gaia Automotive Industries were used during the military coup in February 2021.[40]

Usage of Israeli Arms:

M-67 Towed gun – In usage by Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw)

EE-9 Cascavel armoured cars – In usage by Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw)

Super Dvora Mk-3 – In Usage by the Myanmar Navy.

UFED (Cellebrite) – Myanmar reportedly used Israeli based Cellebrite’s products to breach journalists’ mobile phones, leading to their imprisonment. They were sentenced to seven years in prison for violating state secrecy laws, the Washington Post reported. They had been reporting on alleged government genocide against the minority Rohingya Muslim community.[27]

Skylark I-LEX – in use by Myanmar’s military.[28]

Violations of Human Rights:

Crimes against Rohingya:

The Rohingya are an ethnic group, the majority of whom are Muslim, who have lived for centuries in the majority Buddhist Myanmar. In 2016, there were about 1.1 million Rohingya in the Southeast Asian country. They are not considered one of the country’s 135 official ethnic groups and have been denied citizenship in Myanmar since 1982, which has effectively rendered them stateless. [29] [30]

In August 2017 in response to attacks by a group of Rohingya militants, the Myanmar military launched a brutal crackdown on Rohingya villages, causing over seven hundred thousand people to flee across the border with Bangladesh.[31] At least 6,700 Rohingya, including at least 730 children under the age of five, were killed in the month after the violence broke out, according to medical charity Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF).[32]

Amnesty International says the Myanmar military also raped and abused Rohingya women and girls. Crimes against humanity that were documented by Amnesty International: murder, deportation and forcible displacement, torture, rape and other sexual violence, persecution, and other inhumane acts such as denying food and other life-saving provisions. [33]

At least 288 villages were partially or totally destroyed by fire in northern Rakhine state after August 2017, according to analysis of satellite imagery by Human Rights Watch.[34]

The military’s brutal campaign of murder, rape and other abuses forced more than 740,000 Rohingya to flee to Bangladesh. In 2019, the United Nations-backed Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar warned that the 600,000 Rohingya remaining in Myanmar’s Rakhine state faced a greater than ever threat of genocide because of the government’s attempts to “erase their identity and remove them from the country.”[35]

Refugees who arrived in Bangladesh in 2018 reported continuing abuses by Myanmar security forces, including killings, arson, enforced disappearances, extortion, severe restrictions on movement, and lack of food and health care. They also reported sexual violence and abductions of women and girls in villages and at checkpoints along the route to Bangladesh. Returnees to Myanmar faced arrest and torture by the authorities. Over 4,500 Rohingya remained stuck in the Bangladesh-Myanmar border “no-man’s land,” subject to harassment by Myanmar officials and regular threats via loudspeaker to induce them to cross into Bangladesh.[36]

Others:

Armed conflicts between the Myanmar military and ethnic armed groups intensified over the course of 2018 in Kachin, Shan, and Karen States, stoked by large-scale development projects and disputes over natural resources. Civilians were endangered by the military’s indiscriminate attacks, forced displacement, and aid blockages. An UN fact-finding mission determined that the military’s actions in Shan and Kachin States since 2011 amounted to war crimes and crimes against humanity. In 2018 and 2019 the Myanmar military employed aerial bombing and heavy artillery shelling on townships in Kachin state, killing at least 10 civilians in 2018 and 17 in 2019 and forcing thousands to flee. In 2019 fighting has fostered conflict-related sexual violence, with internally displaced women and girls especially vulnerable to sexual exploitation and abuse.[37] [38]

In 2018 the government increased its use of overly broad and vaguely worded laws to arrest and imprison individuals for peaceful expression deemed critical of the government or military. Prosecutions for criminal defamation increased in 2018, particularly under section 66(d) of the 2013 Telecommunications Act, with most complainant’s state, military, or political party officials; over 60 percent of defendants were journalists, activists, or others addressing matters of public interest. In 2019 more than 250 people faced lawsuits under various rights-restricting laws.[39]

Sales Records Table:

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
6 Super Dvora MK-3 Patrol Crafts
Ramta (IAI)
2015 (2017-2019)
Remote weapons station on the boat is made by Elbit Systems
Sipri, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-burma-arms-sales-rohingya-muslims-ethnic-cleansing-myanmar-a8018591.html
Cornershot Guns
TAR Ideal Concept Ltd
2016
Cornershot guns
https://www.mekomit.co.il/%D7%A2%D7%AA%D7%99%D7%A8%D7%94-%D7%9C%D7%A2%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%95%D7%9F-%D7%91%D7%95%D7%A8%D7%9E%D7%94-%D7%99%D7%A6%D7%95%D7%90-%D7%91%D7%98%D7%97%D7%95%D7%A0%D7%99/
12 EE-9 Cascaval Armored Cars
2007 (2009-2010)
second hand from Brazil, modernized by Israel
Sipri
1 Compact 76mm Naval Gun
IMI
2006 (2011)
second hand, for 1 Aung Zeya frigate from China;
Sipri
16 M-68/M-71 155mm Towed Guns
Soltam Systems
1998 (2000)
Sipri
4 Compact 76mm Naval Guns
IMI
1997 (2001-2003)
second hand, for 2 Anawratha Corvettes from China
Sipri

1. ^ https://www.bilaterals.org/?myanmar-and-israel-sign-an&lang=en

2. ^ https://embassies.gov.il/yangon/AboutTheEmbassy/bilateral-relations/Pages/Myanmar-Israel-Bilateral-Relation.aspx

3. ^ https://tradingeconomics.com/myanmar/imports/israel

4. ^ https://www.momentmag.com/letter-from-myanmar/2/

5. ^ https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-maintains-warm-ties-with-myanmar-downplaying-a-human-rights-controversy/

6. ^ https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-maintains-warm-ties-with-myanmar-downplaying-a-human-rights-controversy/

7. ^ Sipri

8. ^ https://thediplomat.com/2019/06/why-are-old-myanmar-israel-military-links-under-new-scrutiny/

9. ^ Sipri.

10. ^ https://thediplomat.com/2019/06/why-are-old-myanmar-israel-military-links-under-new-scrutiny/

11. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-burma-arms-sales-rohingya-muslims-ethnic-cleansing-myanmar-a8018591.html

12. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/1.818550

13. ^ https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-maintains-warm-ties-with-myanmar-downplaying-a-human-rights-controversy/

14. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-burma-arms-sales-rohingya-muslims-ethnic-cleansing-myanmar-a8018591.html

15. ^ https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/un-israel-sold-arms-to-known-human-rights-abusers-in-myanmar-597843

16. ^ https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/MyanmarFFM/Pages/ReportoftheMyanmarFFM.aspx

17. ^ https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/un-israel-sold-arms-to-known-human-rights-abusers-in-myanmar-597843

18. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-burma-arms-sales-rohingya-muslims-ethnic-cleansing-myanmar-a8018591.html

19. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/world-news/as-violence-intensifies-israel-continues-to-arm-myanmars-junta-1.5447883

20. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-denies-selling-weapons-to-myanmar-but-reps-are-still-at-tel-aviv-arms-expo-1.7332146

21. ^ https://www.timesofisrael.com/israeli-tech-used-to-imprison-journalists-in-myanmar-report/ ; https://freedomhouse.org/country/myanmar/freedom-net/2020 ; https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/security-tech-companies-once-flocked-to-myanmar-one-firms-tools-were-used-against-two-journalists-/2019/05/04/d4e9f7f0-5b5d-11e9-b8e3-b03311fbbbfe_story.html?utm_term=.ca893481e554

22. ^ https://www.fastcompany.com/90369108/inside-the-shadowy-world-of-spyware-makers-that-target-activists-and-dissidents

23. ^ https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2017/09/27/ability-inc-ss7-hackers-fail-to-sell-surveillance/?sh=51ad1298734c

24. ^ https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/cybint-expands-in-asia-with-the-announcement-of-their-first-certified-training-partner-in-india—astraea-solutions-2020-08-27?mod=mw_more_headlines&tesla=y

25. ^ https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/arakan-army-seizes-three-soldiers-sons-western-myanmar.html

26. ^ https://www.arakan.news/2020/06/an-israel-made-drone-is-seized-by.html

27. ^ https://www.timesofisrael.com/israeli-tech-used-to-imprison-journalists-in-myanmar-report/

28. ^ https://www.arakan.news/2020/06/an-israel-made-drone-is-seized-by.html

29. ^ https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2018/04/18/who-are-the-rohingya/

30. ^ https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/rohingya-crisis-myanmar

31. ^ https://www.cfr.org/global-conflict-tracker/conflict/rohingya-crisis-myanmar

32. ^ https://www.msf.org/myanmarbangladesh-msf-surveys-estimate-least-6700-rohingya-were-killed-during-attacks-myanmar

33. ^ https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/10/myanmar-new-evidence-of-systematic-campaign-to-terrorize-and-drive-rohingya-out/

34. ^ https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/10/17/burma-new-satellite-images-confirm-mass-destruction

35. ^ https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25197&LangID=E

36. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/myanmar-burma

37. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/myanmar-burma

38. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/myanmar-burma

39. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/myanmar-burma

40. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/01/world/asia/myanmar-coup-military-surveillance.html#:~:text=military%2Dsurveillance.html-,Myanmar’s%20Military%20Deploys%20Digital%20Arsenal%20of%20Repression%20in%20Crackdown,of%20such%20technology%20to%20Myanmar.

Myanmar

Myanmar’s crimes against the Rohingya Muslim Minority (thousands were killed, 1.1 million have fled) has earned the country widespread condemnation and different arms embargos since the 1990s. Despite that, Israel has been accused of continuing to sell military equipment to the Myanmar Military even as it faced accusations of war crimes against the Rohingya. Israeli arms exports between 2000-2017 included towed guns, naval guns, armed vehicles, and patrol vessels. In addition, training of soldiers by Israel, intelligence cooperation and cybersecurity systems were reportedly provided to Myanmar.

Israel and Myanmar established diplomatic ties in 1953. Israel has an embassy in Yangon and Myanmar has an embassy in Tel Aviv.

Israel and Myanmar have undertaken many international cooperation ventures in the fields of economy, agriculture, health and education. Thousands of students from Myanmar have received training in Israel and scholarships for studies in Israel.  Bilateral agreements were signed in fields of trade and economy, culture and sports, tourism and education.[1] [2] Myanmar imports from Israel were worth $2.12m during 2019 with the main goods being Fertilizers, Pharmaceutical products, machinery and electronic equipment. [3]

Israel always maintained an embassy in Myanmar and was one of the few countries to offer direct aid to the pariah state after Cyclone Nargis left 150,000 dead in 2008.[4] Israel only reacted to allegations of Israeli arms being involved in crimes against the Rohingya in 2017, following domestic and international uproar and a legal challenge that reached its High Court.[5] Israel provided no clarification on military exports to and cooperation with Myanmar and Israeli officials refuse to utilize the term “Rohingya” (Myanmar rejects the term and does not recognize them as citizens).[6]

Military relations started with the beginning of diplomatic ties. Israel exported 29 Spitfire fighter aircrafts that were modernized by Israel in 1954.[7]  There have been reports that trace intelligence cooperation back to the 1950s, and training and arms sales from the 1990s onwards, in spite of occasional denials by Israeli authorities.[8] Despite an arms embargo by the US and Europe that was declared in the 1990s Israel exported a large number of arms to Myanmar and its Military Junta in the 1990s and 2000s. Israeli arms exports between 2000-2017 included towed guns, naval guns, armed vehicles and patrol vessels.[9]

Both sides formally inked a memorandum of understanding on military cooperation in the defense sector in 2015, which covered areas such as exchanges and visits, military training, information sharing, military education, and technology acquisition.[10]

In 2015, the Head of Myanmar’s Military Junta, Min Aung Hlaing, visited Israel and met Israeli officials, including the chief of staff, the minister of defense and the president. He visited military and air force bases. In 2016 the director of the International Defense Cooperation Directorate (SIBAT) visited Myanmar and met Hlaing. Investigations by several human rights watchdogs found more than 100 tanks, as well as boats and light weapons, have been sold to Myanmar by Israeli arms companies between 2000-2017.[11]

In a huge deal Myanmar purchased 6 Super Dvora Mk-3 vessels from Israeli Aerospace Industries in 2015. The total value of the arms deal is estimated to be tens of millions of dollars. The remote weapons station is made by Elbit Systems. The ships were delivered in 2017 [12].

Israel officially stopped selling advanced weaponry to Myanmar’s military in 2017 following domestic and international uproar and a legal challenge that reached its High Court. It is unclear if indeed Israel firms supplied Myanmar’s military between 2017-2020. In December 2017, Myanmar’s ambassador to Israel, U Maung Maung Lynn, said that Israel was still selling weapons to his country. Israel promptly reprimanded and “rebuked” the ambassador, who soon apologized and retracted his statement.[13]

Israel has been accused of continuing to sell military equipment to the Myanmar Military even as it faced accusations of war crimes against minority Rohingya Muslims.[14] In 2019 The UN charged in an official report that Israel was among seven countries that sold arms to Myanmar’s military at a time when it should have known that the weapons “would be used in the commission of serious crimes under international law.”[15] [16] In the UN report, the mission said that as of 2016, 14 foreign companies, including two from Israel, had provided arms and related equipment to the Tatmadaw (Myanmar’s Army) when its actions against the Rohingya were already well publicized.[17]

One company, TAR Ideal Concept, posted pictures in August 2016 of its staff teaching combat tactics to Myanmar’s special forces in northern Rakhine state, where much of the violence is taking place.[18] On the website of TAR Ideal Concepts, that specializes in providing military training and equipment, pictures showed training with Israeli-made Corner Shot rifles, along with the statement that Myanmar had begun operational use of the weapons.[19]

In 2019 official representatives of the Myanmar military were among those touring the Israel Defense and Homeland Security Expo (ISDEF) in Tel Aviv.[20]

In 2019 media reported that the military-backed government of Myanmar used Israeli technology to gather evidence that led to the imprisonment of two Reuter journalists. A former Myanmar military official described the country as a “major customer” of Cellebrite.[21]

Myanmar is also a customer of another Israeli company, named Ability, a former NSO Group partner. Ability sells something called the Unlimited Interception System (ULIN), which allows Ability to intercept networks to spy on target’s smartphones.[22] Myanmar purchased different systems from Ability, that cost between $1 and $5 million.[23]

In 2020 the Israeli cyber security company Cybint announced the development of Cybint Certified Centers in Myanmar as part of their cyber security training programs throughout the Asia-Pacific region.[24]

In June 2020 international media reported that the Arakan Army seized an Israeli-made military-grade Skylark I-LEX drone, belonging to Myanmar’s military. [25] [26]

M-67 Towed gun – In usage by Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw)

EE-9 Cascavel armoured cars – In usage by Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw)

Super Dvora Mk-3 – In Usage by the Myanmar Navy.

Cellebrite Spyware – Myanmar reportedly used Israeli based Cellebrite’s products to breach the journalists’ mobile phones, leading to their imprisonment. They were sentenced to seven years in prison for violating state secrecy laws, the Washington Post reported. They had been reporting on alleged government genocide against the minority Rohingya Muslim community.[27]

Skylark I-LEX – in use by Myanmar’s military.[28]

Crimes against Rohingya:

The Rohingya are an ethnic group, the majority of whom are Muslim, who have lived for centuries in the majority Buddhist Myanmar. In 2016, there were about 1.1 million Rohingya in the Southeast Asian country. They are not considered one of the country’s 135 official ethnic groups and have been denied citizenship in Myanmar since 1982, which has effectively rendered them stateless. [29] [30]

In August 2017 in response to attacks by a group of Rohingya militants, the Myanmar military launched a brutal crackdown on Rohingya villages, causing over seven hundred thousand people to flee across the border with Bangladesh.[31] At least 6,700 Rohingya, including at least 730 children under the age of five, were killed in the month after the violence broke out, according to medical charity Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF).[32]

Amnesty International says the Myanmar military also raped and abused Rohingya women and girls. Crimes against humanity that were documented by Amnesty International: murder, deportation and forcible displacement, torture, rape and other sexual violence, persecution, and other inhumane acts such as denying food and other life-saving provisions. [33]

At least 288 villages were partially or totally destroyed by fire in northern Rakhine state after August 2017, according to analysis of satellite imagery by Human Rights Watch.[34]

The military’s brutal campaign of murder, rape and other abuses forced more than 740,000 Rohingya to flee to Bangladesh. In 2019, the United Nations-backed Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar warned that the 600,000 Rohingya remaining in Myanmar’s Rakhine state faced a greater than ever threat of genocide because of the government’s attempts to “erase their identity and remove them from the country.”[35]

Refugees who arrived in Bangladesh in 2018 reported continuing abuses by Myanmar security forces, including killings, arson, enforced disappearances, extortion, severe restrictions on movement, and lack of food and health care. They also reported sexual violence and abductions of women and girls in villages and at checkpoints along the route to Bangladesh. Returnees to Myanmar faced arrest and torture by the authorities. Over 4,500 Rohingya remained stuck in the Bangladesh-Myanmar border “no-man’s land,” subject to harassment by Myanmar officials and regular threats via loudspeaker to induce them to cross into Bangladesh.[36]

Others:

Armed conflicts between the Myanmar military and ethnic armed groups intensified over the course of 2018 in Kachin, Shan, and Karen States, stoked by large-scale development projects and disputes over natural resources. Civilians were endangered by the military’s indiscriminate attacks, forced displacement, and aid blockages. An UN fact-finding mission determined that the military’s actions in Shan and Kachin States since 2011 amounted to war crimes and crimes against humanity. In 2018 and 2019 the Myanmar military employed aerial bombing and heavy artillery shelling on townships in Kachin state, killing at least 10 civilians in 2018 and 17 in 2019 and forcing thousands to flee. In 2019 fighting has fostered conflict-related sexual violence, with internally displaced women and girls especially vulnerable to sexual exploitation and abuse.[37] [38]

In 2018 the government increased its use of overly broad and vaguely worded laws to arrest and imprison individuals for peaceful expression deemed critical of the government or military. Prosecutions for criminal defamation increased in 2018, particularly under section 66(d) of the 2013 Telecommunications Act, with most complainant’s state, military, or political party officials; over 60 percent of defendants were journalists, activists, or others addressing matters of public interest. In 2019 more than 250 people faced lawsuits under various rights-restricting laws.[39]

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
6 Super Dvora MK-3 Patrol Crafts
Ramta (IAI)
2015 (2017-2019)
Remote weapons station on the boat is made by Elbit Systems
Sipri, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israel-burma-arms-sales-rohingya-muslims-ethnic-cleansing-myanmar-a8018591.html
Cornershot Guns
TAR Ideal Concept Ltd
2016
Cornershot guns
https://www.mekomit.co.il/%D7%A2%D7%AA%D7%99%D7%A8%D7%94-%D7%9C%D7%A2%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%95%D7%9F-%D7%91%D7%95%D7%A8%D7%9E%D7%94-%D7%99%D7%A6%D7%95%D7%90-%D7%91%D7%98%D7%97%D7%95%D7%A0%D7%99/
12 EE-9 Cascaval Armored Cars
2007 (2009-2010)
second hand from Brazil, modernized by Israel
Sipri
1 Compact 76mm Naval Gun
IMI
2006 (2011)
second hand, for 1 Aung Zeya frigate from China;
Sipri
16 M-68/M-71 155mm Towed Guns
Soltam Systems
1998 (2000)
Sipri
4 Compact 76mm Naval Guns
IMI
1997 (2001-2003)
second hand, for 2 Anawratha Corvettes from China
Sipri