Heading 1

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Arms Sold:

Surveillance system

Companies:

Verint Systems

Israel Military Industries (IMI)

Skip to:

South Sudan

Introduction:

 

Israel made hefty investments in civil and military infrastructure in South Sudan. Since South Sudan’s independence in 2011, Israel has continuously sold weapons, surveillance technology and provided military training and security to South Sudan, although the U.S. and U.N. passed an arms embargo on the country. There is evidence that Israeli assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces were used in the civil war. Since the war began in 2013, 50,000 people have been killed, and more than 4 million people have fled.

Israel – South Sudan Relations:

 

Israel and South Sudan established full diplomatic ties directly after South Sudan became an independent state in July 2011. Since the 1960’s Israel has been fighting a secret war in South Sudan by supporting the rebels’ struggle to break free from Khartoum’s tyranny. In 2011 a referendum was held in South Sudan following massive pressure from the international community. Ninety-nine percent of residents voted in favor of breaking away from Khartoum, and on July 9th of the same year South Sudan became an independent country. The State of Israel was one of the first countries to recognize the new state, and in December 2011 Salva Kiir Mayardit, president of South Sudan, came to Israel on official visit.[1] For Israel, an independent South Sudan was a golden opportunity to further its security and economic interests in the area, and it subsequently made hefty investments in civil and military infrastructure there.[2]

In July 2012, Israel Military Industries (IMI) signed a pact to cooperate on water infrastructure and technology development with South Sudan.[3]

In 2013 South Sudan signed an agreement with several Israeli oil companies[4].

Israel exports to South Sudan was US$450k during 2014 according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade. The exported goods were machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers and electronic equipment.[5]

Military Relations:

 

 

Since 2011, Israel has continuously sold weapons, surveillance technology and provided military training and security to South Sudan. A report of the UN Security Council from 2015 shows Photographic evidence of Israeli ACE assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces.[6] The UN report also revealed that Israel sold wiretapping equipment to South Sudan.[7] [8]

In 2011, South Sudan’s intelligence service imported surveillance systems from Israel, including devices that could be fixed on the tower and base stations of telecommunications companies.[9]

Between 2012-2016, the South Sudanese government acquired military weapons and multiple surveillance and communication interception equipment from Israel and other countries. During this period NSS officers were also receiving combat and intelligence training from the Israeli Mossad.[10]

Israeli weapons companies sold $150m worth of lethal weapons through a farming project called “Green Horizon”. The Israeli company involved is Global CST. Global CST is the defense, consulting, and contracting wing of the Global Group, which is owned and operated by Israel Ziv, a former head of Israeli Army[11]. According to the US Treasury Department, Ziv used an agricultural company “as a cover for the sale of approximately $150 million worth of weapons to the government, including rifles, grenade launchers and shoulder-fired rockets.”[12]  The statement also stated that Ziv reportedly prepared to organize attacks by mercenaries on South Sudanese oil fields and infrastructure, in an effort to “create a problem that only his company and affiliates could solve”.[13]

The government, through the NSS and army, acquired key military and surveillance equipment in 2014 from Israel including wiretapping devices and aerial drones and cameras, further enabling this abusive targeting in the country.[14]

In 2017 South Sudan’s authorities published the purchase of Israeli surveillance drones and security cameras. South Sudan’s president Silva Kiir said at a speech, that he holt at a drone control center in Israel: “two drones and 11 cameras will be deployed by Israeli company Global Group”. The exact worth of the deal is unknown.[15] [16]

In 2018 the U.S. imposed sanctions on Israel Ziv, due to his role in the civil war in South Sudan. The U.S. banned the export of weapons and defense services to South Sudan in February 2018 and the U.N (United Nations). Security Council passed an arms embargo against South Sudan in July 2018.[17] Israeli officials assured the UN that Israel would suspend transfers of lethal equipment to any party in South Sudan. Yet, the Defense Export Control Agency (DECA) at the Israeli Ministry of Defense continued to grant export licenses to Israeli weapons companies to sell lethal weapons through Ziv and Green Horizon – in violation of EU, US, and UN embargoes.[18] [19]

Arms fairs:

South Sudanese delegation visited the Israeli arms fair “ISDEF” in 2015 and 2019.  

Usage of Israeli Arms:

 

Rifles: A report of the UN Security Council from 2015 shows Photographic evidence of Israeli ACE assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces.[20] Israeli arms supplies to South Sudan received significant media attention after the UN Panel of Experts reported that government-sponsored Mathiang Anyoor militia members were using (lawfully supplied) Israeli Galil ACE rifles. These weapons originated in South Sudanese National Security Service (NSS) stockpiles and were deployed by the militia during the initial fighting in Juba in December 2013. The UN Panel of Experts also reported that the NSS had acquired Micro Galil rifles from Ugandan stockpiles in 2014, after the start of hostilities. The sample of weapons documented by Conflict Armament Research in South Sudan includes seven Israeli-made weapons (five per cent of the sample).[21]

Wiretapping equipment (Verint Systems) – was used to identify and arrest opponents of the government. [22] A former intelligence official told Human Rights Watch that the surveillance equipment acquired has the ability to “intercept and monitor” networks that carry voice and data traffic, potentially allowing NSS to record communications including voice calls and voice messages in real time. A south Sudanese human rights monitor told Human Rights Watch that the surveillance equipment is operated and managed by private Israeli experts who reports to the head of the Internal Security Bureau of the NSS, Lt. Gen. Akol Koor Kuc.[23]

Violations of Human Rights:

 

Since mid-December 2013, a civil war has been raging in South Sudan between opposing ethnic and political groups — a continuation of the bloody civil war that led to the country’s independence after 22 years. According to reports, since the conflict started in December 2013, 50,000 people were killed, more than 4 million people have fled their homes, with 2.47 million taking refuge in neighboring countries. Close to 200,000 people are living in six UN “protection of civilians” sites across the country. Seven million people needed humanitarian assistance, most of whom faced acute food shortages.[24] [25] Human rights organizations and the United Nations estimate that 12,000 child soldiers are fighting in South Sudan.[26] All parties to the conflict committed serious abuses, including indiscriminate attacks against civilians including aid workers, unlawful killings, beatings, arbitrary detentions, torture, sexual violence, recruitment and use of child soldiers, looting and destruction of civilian property. Some of the abuses constitute war crimes or crimes against humanity. All parties to the conflict restricted access for the United Nations (UN) mission,those providing humanitarian assistance, and ceasefire monitors. [27]

Neither side is able to bring the war to an end, and no ethnic group has a clear majority in the country. The Dinka tribe, which is currently in control of the government, is only 35 percent of the population.[28] Some of the opposition fighters are former security forces personnel who defected to the other side, taking their weapons and military training with them, thus making it harder for government forces to defeat them. For these reasons, the government decided on an alternative strategy: mass murder,[29]systematic rape,[30] of other ethnic groups, and abuse of citizens identified with the opposition.

Members of all parties committed acts of sexual violence against women and girls during armed attacks on their homes, while they were fleeing attacks or when they went to buy or search for basic necessities such as food and firewood around UN sites. Perpetrators of sexual violence crimes were rarely held accountable. [31]

All parties have attacked aid workers, and restricted access to populations in need. At least 12 aid workers were killed in 2018, bringing the toll to over 100 since December 2013.[32]

National security officials summoned, questioned, and harassed journalists and editors and censored newspaper articles. In February, the UN published a report identifying 60 incidents including killings, arbitrary arrests and detentions of journalists and editors, closure, suspension or censorship of newspapers and blocking of websites, from the period of July 2016-Dec 2017. [33]

In 2019, fighting between the two main warring parties declined following the signing of the “revitalized” peace agreement in September 2018. However, amid delays implementing the peace deal, sporadic fighting continued between the army and rebel groups that were not part of the agreement.[34]

Sales Records Table:

Download as XLS or PDF or view the Google-Doc

Product
Company
Year
Deal Size
Comments
Source
Surveillance systems and control center
Verint Systems
https://www.haaretz.co.il/magazine/.premium-MAGAZINE-1.6569594
Galil ACE Rifles
IMI
https://english.alaraby.co.uk/english/comment/2019/8/30/in-south-sudan-israel-is-sowing-seeds-of-war

1. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/south-sudan-president-visits-israel-for-first-time-1.402580

2. ^ https://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4097591,00.html

3. ^ https://www.jpost.com/Enviro-Tech/Israel-signs-1st-agreement-on-water-with-S-Sudan

4. ^ https://www.upi.com/Energy-News/2013/01/18/South-Sudan-signs-oil-deal-with-Israel/91351358531460/?ur3=1

5. ^ https://tradingeconomics.com/israel/exports/south-sudan

6. ^ https://english.alaraby.co.uk/english/comment/2019/8/30/in-south-sudan-israel-is-sowing-seeds-of-war

7. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-supplies-s-sudan-gov-t-with-spy-tools-1.5396198

8. ^ https://www.haaretz.co.il/magazine/.premium-MAGAZINE-1.6569594

9. ^ https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/12/14/what-crime-was-i-paying/abuses-south-sudans-national-security-service#_ftn211

10. ^ https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/12/14/what-crime-was-i-paying/abuses-south-sudans-national-security-service#_ftn211

11. ^ https://www.occrp.org/en/investigations/sprouting-weapons-of-war

12. ^ https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm574

13. ^ https://www.calcalistech.com/ctech/articles/0,7340,L-3752144,00.html

14. ^ https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/12/14/what-crime-was-i-paying/abuses-south-sudans-national-security-service#_ftn210

15. ^ https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20171205-south-sudan-spends-millions-on-israel-security-devices/

16. ^ https://www.timesofisrael.com/broke-south-sudan-spends-millions-on-israeli-surveillance-drones/

17. ^ https://www.calcalistech.com/ctech/articles/0,7340,L-3752144,00.html

18. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-told-un-it-was-not-selling-lethal-weapons-to-south-sudan-1.5390399

19. ^ https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20190906-how-israel-is-sowing-the-seeds-of-war-in-south-sudan/

20. ^ https://english.alaraby.co.uk/english/comment/2019/8/30/in-south-sudan-israel-is-sowing-seeds-of-war

21. ^ Conflict Armament Research (2018): Weapon Supplies into South Sudan’s Civil War. London

22. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-israel-supplies-s-sudan-gov-t-with-spy-tools-1.5396198

23. ^ https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/12/14/what-crime-was-i-paying/abuses-south-sudans-national-security-service#_ftn211

24. ^ http://www.hrw.org/world-report/2015/country-chapters/south-sudan

25. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/south-sudan

26. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/30/what-next-south-sudan-3000-freed-child-soldiers

27. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/south-sudan

28. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/od.html

29. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/15/south-sudan-first-anniversary-civil-war

30. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKBN0O313B20150518

31. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/south-sudan

32. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/south-sudan

33. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/south-sudan

34. ^ https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/south-sudan

South Sudan

Israel made hefty investments in civil and military infrastructure in South Sudan. Since South Sudan’s independence in 2011, Israel has continuously sold weapons, surveillance technology and provided military training and security to South Sudan, although the U.S. and U.N. passed an arms embargo on the country. There is evidence that Israeli assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces were used in the civil war. Since the war began in 2013, 50,000 people have been killed, and more than 4 million people have fled.

Israel and South Sudan established full diplomatic ties directly after South Sudan became an independent state in July 2011. Since the 1960’s Israel has been fighting a secret war in South Sudan by supporting the rebels’ struggle to break free from Khartoum’s tyranny. In 2011 a referendum was held in South Sudan following massive pressure from the international community. Ninety-nine percent of residents voted in favor of breaking away from Khartoum, and on July 9th of the same year South Sudan became an independent country. The State of Israel was one of the first countries to recognize the new state, and in December 2011 Salva Kiir Mayardit, president of South Sudan, came to Israel on official visit.[1] For Israel, an independent South Sudan was a golden opportunity to further its security and economic interests in the area, and it subsequently made hefty investments in civil and military infrastructure there.[2]

In July 2012, Israel Military Industries (IMI) signed a pact to cooperate on water infrastructure and technology development with South Sudan.[3]

In 2013 South Sudan signed an agreement with several Israeli oil companies[4].

Israel exports to South Sudan was US$450k during 2014 according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade. The exported goods were machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers and electronic equipment.[5]

Since 2011, Israel has continuously sold weapons, surveillance technology and provided military training and security to South Sudan. A report of the UN Security Council from 2015 shows Photographic evidence of Israeli ACE assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces.[6] The UN report also revealed that Israel sold wiretapping equipment to South Sudan.[7] [8]

In 2011, South Sudan’s intelligence service imported surveillance systems from Israel, including devices that could be fixed on the tower and base stations of telecommunications companies.[9]

Between 2012-2016, the South Sudanese government acquired military weapons and multiple surveillance and communication interception equipment from Israel and other countries. During this period NSS officers were also receiving combat and intelligence training from the Israeli Mossad.[10]

Israeli weapons companies sold $150m worth of lethal weapons through a farming project called “Green Horizon”. The Israeli company involved is Global CST. Global CST is the defense, consulting, and contracting wing of the Global Group, which is owned and operated by Israel Ziv, a former head of Israeli Army[11]. According to the US Treasury Department, Ziv used an agricultural company “as a cover for the sale of approximately $150 million worth of weapons to the government, including rifles, grenade launchers and shoulder-fired rockets.”[12]  The statement also stated that Ziv reportedly prepared to organize attacks by mercenaries on South Sudanese oil fields and infrastructure, in an effort to “create a problem that only his company and affiliates could solve”.[13]

The government, through the NSS and army, acquired key military and surveillance equipment in 2014 from Israel including wiretapping devices and aerial drones and cameras, further enabling this abusive targeting in the country.[14]

In 2017 South Sudan’s authorities published the purchase of Israeli surveillance drones and security cameras. South Sudan’s president Silva Kiir said at a speech, that he holt at a drone control center in Israel: “two drones and 11 cameras will be deployed by Israeli company Global Group”. The exact worth of the deal is unknown.[15] [16]

In 2018 the U.S. imposed sanctions on Israel Ziv, due to his role in the civil war in South Sudan. The U.S. banned the export of weapons and defense services to South Sudan in February 2018 and the U.N (United Nations). Security Council passed an arms embargo against South Sudan in July 2018.[17] Israeli officials assured the UN that Israel would suspend transfers of lethal equipment to any party in South Sudan. Yet, the Defense Export Control Agency (DECA) at the Israeli Ministry of Defense continued to grant export licenses to Israeli weapons companies to sell lethal weapons through Ziv and Green Horizon – in violation of EU, US, and UN embargoes.[18] [19]

Arms fairs:

South Sudanese delegation visited the Israeli arms fair “ISDEF” in 2015 and 2019.  

Rifles: A report of the UN Security Council from 2015 shows Photographic evidence of Israeli ACE assault rifles in the arsenal of South Sudan’s military and government-aligned militias as well as opposition forces.[20] Israeli arms supplies to South Sudan received significant media attention after the UN Panel of Experts reported that government-sponsored Mathiang Anyoor militia members were using (lawfully supplied) Israeli Galil ACE rifles. These weapons originated in South Sudanese National Security Service (NSS) stockpiles and were deployed by the militia during the initial fighting in Juba in December 2013. The UN Panel of Experts also reported that the NSS had acquired Micro Galil rifles from Ugandan stockpiles in 2014, after the start of hostilities. The sample of weapons documented by Conflict Armament Research in South Sudan includes seven Israeli-made weapons (five per cent of the sample).[21]

Wiretapping equipment (Verint Systems) – was used to identify and arrest opponents of the government. [22] A former intelligence official told Human Rights Watch that the surveillance equipment acquired has the ability to “intercept and monitor” networks that carry voice and data traffic, potentially allowing NSS to record communications including voice calls and voice messages in real time. A south Sudanese human rights monitor told Human Rights Watch that the surveillance equipment is operated and managed by private Israeli experts who reports to the head of the Internal Security Bureau of the NSS, Lt. Gen. Akol Koor Kuc.[23]

Since mid-December 2013, a civil war has been raging in South Sudan between opposing ethnic and political groups — a continuation of the bloody civil war that led to the country’s independence after 22 years. According to reports, since the conflict started in December 2013, 50,000 people were killed, more than 4 million people have fled their homes, with 2.47 million taking refuge in neighboring countries. Close to 200,000 people are living in six UN “protection of civilians” sites across the country. Seven million people needed humanitarian assistance, most of whom faced acute food shortages.[24] [25] Human rights organizations and the United Nations estimate that 12,000 child soldiers are fighting in South Sudan.[26] All parties to the conflict committed serious abuses, including indiscriminate attacks against civilians including aid workers, unlawful killings, beatings, arbitrary detentions, torture, sexual violence, recruitment and use of child soldiers, looting and destruction of civilian property. Some of the abuses constitute war crimes or crimes against humanity. All parties to the conflict restricted access for the United Nations (UN) mission,those providing humanitarian assistance, and ceasefire monitors. [27]

Neither side is able to bring the war to an end, and no ethnic group has a clear majority in the country. The Dinka tribe, which is currently in control of the government, is only 35 percent of the population.[28] Some of the opposition fighters are former security forces personnel who defected to the other side, taking their weapons and military training with them, thus making it harder for government forces to defeat them. For these reasons, the government decided on an alternative strategy: mass murder,[29]systematic rape,[30] of other ethnic groups, and abuse of citizens identified with the opposition.

Members of all parties committed acts of sexual violence against women and girls during armed attacks on their homes, while they were fleeing attacks or when they went to buy or search for basic necessities such as food and firewood around UN sites. Perpetrators of sexual violence crimes were rarely held accountable. [31]

All parties have attacked aid workers, and restricted access to populations in need. At least 12 aid workers were killed in 2018, bringing the toll to over 100 since December 2013.[32]

National security officials summoned, questioned, and harassed journalists and editors and censored newspaper articles. In February, the UN published a report identifying 60 incidents including killings, arbitrary arrests and detentions of journalists and editors, closure, suspension or censorship of newspapers and blocking of websites, from the period of July 2016-Dec 2017. [33]

In 2019, fighting between the two main warring parties declined following the signing of the “revitalized” peace agreement in September 2018. However, amid delays implementing the peace deal, sporadic fighting continued between the army and rebel groups that were not part of the agreement.[34]